It is essential that every effort be taken to preserve the highway infrastructure in order to provide safe and efficient movement of people, goods and services. The condition of the infrastructure is continually monitored at many levels in order to evaluate and plan the appropriate actions needed to safeguard the integrity of the highway system.
Highway Information Systems (HIS) have been designed and built to manage this information.
It provides the means to geographically integrate the information used to manage the country network of highways and support the future integration of data for other modes (transit, aviation, rail, etc. ) of transportation. It uses a unique data structure to maintain this warehouse of data in a multi-platform environment.
Definition of SCADA: A collection of equipment that will provide an operator at remote location with enough information to determine the status of a particular piece of a equipment or entire substation and cause actions to take place regarding the equipment or network.
What is SCADA?
How : By collecting Information from plant / Load centre bend reducing it to the EMS
Where : Control Centre. Both at Plant and Load
Why : To gather Information as here (voltage, current, frequency, power, circuit breaker status) and to perform online actions.
SCADA is an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data. SCADA systems are used not only in industrial processes: e.g. steel making, power generation (conventional and nuclear) and distribution, chemistry, but also in some experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. The size of such plants range from a few 1000 to several 10 thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA systems evolve rapidly and are now penetrating the market of plants with a number of I/O channels.
SCADA systems are used to monitor or to control chemical or transport processes in municipal water supply systems, to control electric power generation, transmission and distribution, gas and oil pipelines, and other distributed processes. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) achieves this requirement collecting reliable field data through Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) Intelligent Electric Devices (IEDs) and presenting them to user requirement. The user interface or the man machine interface (MMI) provides various options of data presentation according to specific application and user needs. There are many parts of a working SCADA system. A SCADA system usually includes signal hardware (input and output), controllers, networks, user interface (HMI), communications equipment and software. All together, the term SCADA refers to the entire central system. The central system usually monitors data from various sensors that are either in close proximity or off site.
An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and ‘smarter’ use of transport networks.
Although ITS may refer to all modes of transport, the directive of the European Union 2010/40/EU, made on the 7 July 2010, defined ITS as systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure, vehicles and users, and in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport. ITS may improve the efficiency of transport in a number of situations, i.e. road transport, traffic management, mobility, etc.
Toll collection (ETC) aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads, High-occupancy vehicle lanes, toll bridges, and toll tunnels by collecting tolls with or without cash. Electronic toll booths may operate alongside cash lanes so that drivers who do not have transponders can pay a cashier or throw coins into a receptacle. With cashless tolling, cars without transponders are either excluded or pay by plate – a bill may be mailed to the address where the car’s license plate number is registered, or drivers may have a certain amount of time to pay with a credit card by phone. Open road tolling is a popular form of cashless tolling without toll booths; cars pass electronic readers even at highway speeds without the safety hazard and traffic bottlenecks created by having to slow down to go through an automated toll booth lane.
Transponders are used to facilitate micropayments from drivers who have typically signed up in advance and loaded money into a declining-balance account which is debited each time they pass a toll point. License plate readers and sensors can be used to detect cars which are evading tolls or which are wanted by law enforcement for other reasons. Electronic tolling is cheaper than a staffed booth, reducing transaction costs for government agencies or private road owners recouping construction or maintenance costs or deriving revenue from a toll road. The ease of varying the amount of the toll and the ability to charge drivers without building a toll booth also makes it easy to implement road congestion pricing, including for high-occupancy lanes, toll lanes that bypass congestion, and city-wide congestion charges.